Energy Stored in a Capacitor – Class 12 | Chapter – 2 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Energy Stored in a Capacitor: The energy stored in a capacitor can be calculated using the following equation:
E = 0.5 * C * V2
E is the energy stored in the capacitor.
C is the capacitance of the capacitor.
V is the voltage across the capacitor.
This equation shows that the energy stored in a capacitor is directly proportional to the capacitance of the capacitor and the square of the voltage across it. This means that as the capacitance of the capacitor increases, or as the voltage across the capacitor increases, the amount of energy stored in the capacitor will also increase.
It’s important to note that the energy stored in a capacitor is stored in the electric field created between the two plates of the capacitor. When a voltage is applied to the capacitor, the electric field between the two plates grows stronger, storing more energy in the capacitor. When the voltage across the capacitor changes, the energy stored in the electric field changes as well, leading to a transfer of energy from the electric field to the circuit.
Applications of Energy Stored in a Capacitor
Energy stored in a capacitor has a number of practical applications in various fields, including:
- Power Supply: Capacitors are commonly used as an energy storage device in power supplies. They can help regulate the voltage and provide a smooth flow of power to electronic devices.
- Filtering: Capacitors are used as filters in electronic circuits to remove unwanted noise and signals.
- Power conditioning: Capacitors can be used to smooth out the power delivered to an electrical device, improving its performance and reducing the amount of energy lost to heat.
- Automotive Systems: Capacitors are used in automotive systems, such as ignition systems, to store and release energy quickly.
- Pulse Generation: Capacitors can be charged and then quickly discharged to generate high-power pulses, which are useful in a variety of applications such as laser systems, medical equipment, and scientific research.
- Energy Harvesting: Capacitors can be used to store energy harvested from renewable sources, such as wind or solar power, to be used when needed.
Lighting: Capacitors are used in lighting systems to store and release energy, providing a source of power for lights even during brief interruptions in the electrical supply.
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