Energy of an Orbiting Satellite – Class 11 | Chapter – 8 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Energy of an Orbiting Satellite: An orbiting satellite has both kinetic energy and potential energy. The kinetic energy is due to the satellite’s motion, while the potential energy is due to its position in the Earth’s gravitational field. The kinetic energy of an orbiting satellite can be calculated using the formula KE = (1/2)mv2, where m is the mass of the satellite and v is its velocity. Since the velocity of a satellite in orbit is constant, its kinetic energy remains constant as well.
Energy of an Orbiting Satellite
The potential energy of an orbiting satellite is due to its position in the Earth’s gravitational field. It can be calculated using the formula PE = -GmM/r, where G is the gravitational constant, m is the mass of the satellite, M is the mass of the Earth, and r is the distance between the satellite and the center of the Earth. The negative sign in the formula indicates that the potential energy is a negative quantity, meaning that the potential energy decreases as the satellite gets closer to the Earth.
The total energy of an orbiting satellite is the sum of its kinetic and potential energies, and it remains constant as long as the satellite remains in the same orbit. This is known as the conservation of energy.
In addition to its kinetic and potential energies, an orbiting satellite also has angular momentum, which is a measure of its rotational motion around the Earth. Angular momentum is also conserved, which means that it remains constant as long as there are no external forces acting on the satellite.
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