Electrolysis – Class 12 | Chapter – 3 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Electrolysis: Electrolysis is a process in which an electric current is passed through an electrolyte, causing a non-spontaneous chemical reaction to occur. During electrolysis, the electric current drives the chemical reaction, causing the electrolyte to be broken down into its constituent elements or compounds. The process of electrolysis involves two electrodes: the anode and the cathode, and an electrolyte solution.
The anode is the positively charged electrode, and it attracts the negatively charged ions in the electrolyte. At the anode, the negatively charged ions lose electrons and are oxidized, producing a non-metallic product or releasing gas. The cathode is the negatively charged electrode, and it attracts the positively charged ions in the electrolyte. At the cathode, the positively charged ions gain electrons and are reduced, producing a metallic product or forming a compound.
The products of the electrolysis depend on the nature of the electrolyte and the type of reaction taking place. For example, electrolysis of water produces hydrogen gas at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode.
Applications of Electrolysis
Electrolysis has many important applications in industry, technology, and daily life. Some of the most common applications of electrolysis are:
- Production of chemicals: Electrolysis is used to produce chemicals such as chlorine, sodium hydroxide, and aluminum.
- Electroplating: Electrolysis is used to coat a metal surface with a thin layer of another metal, such as chrome, nickel, or gold.
- Purification of metals: Electrolysis is used to purify metals such as copper, zinc, and nickel.
- Batteries: Some types of batteries, such as rechargeable batteries, use electrolysis to store and release electrical energy.
- Wastewater treatment: Electrolysis is used to remove contaminants from wastewater by breaking down organic compounds and removing heavy metals.
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