## Einstein Photoelectric Equation – Class 12 | Chapter – 11 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Einstein Photoelectric Equation: The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from a material when it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation, such as light. The photoelectric effect was first described by Heinrich Hertz in 1887, but it was Albert Einstein who explained the phenomenon in 1905 with his photoelectric equation.

Einstein photoelectric equation relates the energy of a photon to the energy required to remove an electron from a material. The equation explains the photoelectric effect and has implications for the understanding of the nature of light and the behavior of matter.

## Einstein Photoelectric Equation

Here are some key points that explain Einstein photoelectric equation:

• The equation: Einstein’s photoelectric equation describes the relationship between the energy of a photon and the energy required to remove an electron from a material. The equation is given by E = hf – Φ, where E is the kinetic energy of the emitted electron, h is Planck’s constant, f is the frequency of the incident photon, and Φ is the work function of the material, which represents the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the material.
• Explanation: The photoelectric effect occurs when a photon of sufficient energy strikes an atom in a material, causing an electron to be ejected from the atom. The energy of the photon is transferred to the electron, which can escape from the material if its kinetic energy is greater than or equal to the work function of the material. Einstein’s equation explains how the energy of the incident photon, the work function of the material, and the kinetic energy of the emitted electron are related.
• Implications: Einstein’s photoelectric equation had significant implications for the understanding of the nature of light and the behavior of matter. It provided evidence that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties and helped to establish the concept of the photon, a discrete packet of energy associated with electromagnetic radiation. The equation also had practical applications, such as in the development of photoelectric cells, which convert light into electricity.

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