Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System – Class 11 | Chapter – 20 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System: A disorder can be defined in layman’s terms as a deviation from an order or an abnormality. This disorder can afflict any machine or human body. The human body, like most machines, undergoes wear and tear over time, because of age or misuse. This wear and tear can lead to disorders. The muscular and skeletal system is also subject to diseases and this affects the human body adversely. Below are mentioned a few Muscular and Skeletal Disorders.

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Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal System

  1. Muscular System Diseases

Here are some commonly found muscular system disorders –

  • Sprain and Strain

These are among the most common muscular system disorders. Sprain often occurs due to ligament injury or twist of joints; however, in such cases there is no dislocation of the joint. On the other hand, when compared to sprain, a strain is relatively less painful.

  • Tetany

It is mostly recognised as the uncontrollable twitching of muscles and is often caused due to nutritional deficiencies, nervous system disorder or infections.

  • Muscular Dystrophy

Typically, it is a genetic disorder which causes progressive deterioration of muscles and makes them weak. Over the years, it makes one lose the ability to move or make smooth gestures.

  • Myasthenia Gravis

It is an autoimmune disease wherein antibodies affect one’s nerves and hamper the ability to generate muscular contractions. The muscles of the neck and face are said to be affected the most.

  1. Skeletal Muscle Diseases

These are some common skeletal muscle disorders –

  • Arthritis

It is most commonly found among the elderly and is mostly classified as a disease of joints. Typically, there are several types of arthritis like rheumatoid, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis and infectious arthritis. Notably, the cause for each of arthritis tends to differ from the others.

  • Osteoporosis

A low rate of mineral density in bones is often the cause of osteoporosis. It is one of those skeletal diseases and disorders which are more common in women than in men. It also makes them more prone to fractures.

  • Dislocation and Fracture

A break in a bone is termed as a fracture, whereas displacing a bone from its original position is dislocation. Usually, unnatural position and injury are among the major causes of fractures and dislocations.

  • Spondylitis

It is a group of disorders which tend to affect the spine and hamper the smooth functioning of skeletal muscle.

  • Osteomalacia and Rickets

Osteomalacia is caused due to vitamin D deficiency in adults, while rickets occurs because of the same in children. Also, the lack of adequate calcium and phosphorus in bones can lead to these diseases.


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