Cytoplasm – Class 11 | Chapter – 10 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is the gelatinous liquid that fills the inside of a cell. It is composed of water, salts, and various organic molecules. Some intracellular organelles, such the nucleus and mitochondria, are enclosed by membranes that separate them from the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm in the eukaryotic cells associates with the cell contents except for the nucleus. But in prokaryotic cells, as they do not possess a defined nuclear membrane, the cytoplasm possesses the genetic material of the cell. The cells, in comparison to the eukaryotes, are smaller and have an uncomplicated arrangement of the cytoplasm.

Functions of Cytoplasm

  • The cytoplasm functions to support and suspend organelles and cellular molecules.
  • Many cellular processes also occur in the cytoplasm, such as protein synthesis, the first stage of cellular respiration (known as glycolysis), mitosis, and meiosis.
  • The cytoplasm helps to move materials, such as hormones, around the cell and also dissolves cellular waste.

Divisions of Cytoplasm

The cytoplasm can be divided into two primary parts: the endoplasm and ectoplasm. The endoplasm is the central area of the cytoplasm that contains the organelles. The ectoplasm is the more gel-like peripheral portion of the cytoplasm of a cell.

Structure of Cytoplasm

Cell organelles are various structures existing inside cells. All these structures are distinct and perform specific functions. Cells have three main elements i.e., plasma membrane, and cytoplasm and the nucleus.

The plasma membrane or cell membrane is a bi-lipid membranous layer, parting the cell organelles from its outside environment and from the different cells. It is the external covering of a cell where all different parts, including cytoplasm and nucleus, are enclosed.

Next, is the nucleus, one of the biggest organelle. They have exclusive control of a cell. Lastly, the cytoplasm is a jelly-like material in which the cell organelles are implanted.

The cytoplasm is an essential component of the cell. It is a semi-liquid jelly-like material, which joins the nucleus and the cell membrane. In the cell, the cytoplasm is embedded, while other cell organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, ribosomes, vacuoles, etc. are all suspended within it.

It can easily be examined under a microscope through the staining technique. Functionally, it is the site for several chemical reactions within a cell. Most of the cellular metabolism takes place here.

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By Team Learning Mantras