Conduction of Electricity in Metals – Class 12 | Chapter – 1 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Conduction of Electricity in Metals: The conduction of electricity in metals is primarily due to the presence of free electrons in the metal lattice. In a metal, the valence electrons of each atom are shared between neighboring atoms, creating a sea of electrons that is free to move throughout the material. These free electrons are not bound to any particular atom and can move freely in response to an electric field.

The conductivity of a metal depends on a number of factors, including the number of free electrons available in the metal, the mobility of these electrons, and the scattering of electrons due to impurities or defects in the metal lattice. Increasing the number of free electrons or improving their mobility can increase the conductivity of the metal, while impurities and defects can reduce conductivity.

Properties of Conduction of Electricity in Metals

The conduction of electricity in metals has several important properties, including:

  • High electrical conductivity: Metals are excellent conductors of electricity due to the presence of free electrons that can move throughout the metal lattice in response to an electric field. This makes metals ideal for use in electrical wiring and other applications that require efficient transmission of electricity.
  • Low resistivity: The resistance of a metal to the flow of electrical current is low, which means that it does not impede the flow of electricity significantly. This is because the free electrons in metals can move easily through the lattice structure, which reduces the amount of resistance encountered.
  • Temperature dependence: The electrical conductivity of metals is temperature dependent, with most metals exhibiting an increase in conductivity as temperature decreases. However, some metals, such as tungsten, exhibit a decrease in conductivity with decreasing temperature.
  • Dependence on impurities and defects: The presence of impurities and defects in a metal can affect its electrical conductivity. Impurities can disrupt the flow of free electrons, while defects in the metal lattice can create obstacles that impede the movement of electrons.
  • Measured in siemens per meter (S/m): Electrical conductivity is measured in units of siemens per meter (S/m) or ohms per meter (Ω/m), and the conductivity of metals can range from approximately 10^6 S/m for copper to 103 S/m for stainless steel.

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By Team Learning Mantras