## Common Forces in Mechanics – Class 11 | Chapter – 5 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Common Forces in Mechanics: Forces in mechanics refer to the physical interactions that cause an object to accelerate or deform. A force is any influence that can cause a change in the motion or shape of an object. In physics, forces are described as vectors, which means they have both magnitude (size) and direction.

The unit of force is the newton (N), which is defined as the force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared. Forces can be classified into several categories, such as gravitational, electromagnetic, and contact forces. Understanding forces in mechanics is essential for analyzing the behavior of objects in motion and for designing and building machines and structures that can withstand external forces.

## Common Forces in Mechanics

In mechanics, there are several common types of forces that can be exerted on an object. These include:

• Gravitational force: The force of attraction between two objects due to their masses. The gravitational force is always attractive and acts in a straight line between the two objects.
• Normal force: The force exerted by a surface perpendicular to the surface of an object in contact with it. This force prevents objects from passing through each other and is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force exerted by the object.
• Frictional force: The force that opposes the motion of an object when it is in contact with another surface. Frictional force is caused by the interaction between the molecules of the two surfaces in contact.
• Tension force: The force exerted by a string, rope, or cable that is pulled taut. The tension force acts in the direction of the string or rope and is equal in magnitude to the force pulling on it.
• Applied force: The force that is applied to an object by an external source. Applied force can be used to move an object or change its direction.
• Spring force: The force exerted by a compressed or stretched spring. The spring force is proportional to the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium position.
• Electrical force: The force exerted between two charged objects due to their electric charges. The electrical force can be attractive or repulsive, depending on the charges of the objects.

These common types of forces in mechanics are fundamental for understanding the behavior of objects in motion and are used in many areas of science and engineering, such as physics, aerospace, and mechanical engineering.

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