Batteries – Class 12 | Chapter – 3 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Batteries: A battery is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. It consists of one or more electrochemical cells, which are made up of two electrodes (a cathode and an anode) and an electrolyte solution that separates them. Batteries are commonly used as power sources for a wide range of electronic devices, vehicles, and other applications.
When a battery is connected to an external circuit, a chemical reaction occurs at the electrodes. At the anode, a chemical reaction produces electrons and positively charged ions, which flow through the external circuit to the cathode. At the cathode, another chemical reaction takes place, which consumes the electrons and positively charged ions. The electrolyte solution inside the battery facilitates the movement of ions between the electrodes.
Types of Batteries
Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, and they use different types of electrochemical reactions to produce electrical energy. Some of the most common types of batteries include:
- Alkaline batteries: Alkaline batteries are commonly used in household devices such as flashlights, toys, and remote controls. They use a zinc anode, a manganese dioxide cathode, and an alkaline electrolyte.
- Lithium-ion batteries: Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices such as cell phones, laptops, and cameras. They use a lithium cobalt oxide cathode, a carbon anode, and a lithium salt electrolyte.
- Lead-acid batteries: Lead-acid batteries are commonly used in vehicles, uninterruptible power supplies, and backup power systems. They use a lead dioxide cathode, a lead anode, and a sulfuric acid electrolyte.
- Nickel-cadmium batteries: Nickel-cadmium batteries are used in portable electronic devices, power tools, and medical equipment. They use a nickel oxide hydroxide cathode, a cadmium anode, and a potassium hydroxide electrolyte.
- Nickel-metal hydride batteries: Nickel-metal hydride batteries are used in hybrid cars, cordless phones, and other devices. They use a nickel oxide cathode, a hydrogen-absorbing alloy anode, and a potassium hydroxide electrolyte.
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