## Bandwidth of Transmission Medium – Class 12 | Chapter – 15 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Bandwidth of Transmission Medium: The bandwidth of transmission medium refers to the range of frequencies that can be transmitted over the medium without significant attenuation (loss of signal strength) or distortion. The bandwidth of transmission medium depends on several factors, including the type of medium, its physical characteristics, and the noise level in the transmission environment.

## Common types of Bandwidth of Transmission Medium

Here are some common types of transmission media and their associated bandwidths:

• Copper Wire: Copper wire is commonly used for wired communication and has a limited bandwidth due to its physical characteristics. The maximum bandwidth of copper wire depends on its length, diameter, and other factors, but is typically in the range of a few hundred kHz to several GHz.
• Fiber Optic Cable: Fiber optic cable is a high-bandwidth transmission medium that uses light to transmit data over long distances. The bandwidth of fiber optic cable can range from a few GHz to hundreds of GHz, depending on the type of fiber and the transmission technology used.
• Wireless Communication: Wireless communication uses radio waves to transmit data over the air, and the bandwidth of the transmission medium depends on the frequency range used. The available bandwidth for wireless communication is typically limited by government regulations and can range from a few MHz to several GHz.
• Satellite Communication: Satellite communication uses orbiting satellites to transmit data over long distances, and the available bandwidth depends on the frequency range used and the number of available satellite channels. The bandwidth of satellite communication can range from a few MHz to several GHz.

## Methods to measure Bandwidth of Transmission Medium

There are several methods for measuring the bandwidth of transmission medium, depending on the type of medium and the measurement equipment available. Here are some common methods:

• Network Analyzer: A network analyzer is a specialized instrument that can measure the frequency response of a transmission medium. By injecting a test signal into the medium and measuring the signal strength at various frequencies, a network analyzer can determine the frequency response of the medium and hence its bandwidth.
• Oscilloscope: An oscilloscope can be used to measure the bandwidth of a transmission medium by analyzing the shape of a test signal as it passes through the medium. By comparing the input and output waveforms, the bandwidth of the medium can be determined based on the amount of attenuation or distortion.
• Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR): TDR is a technique that uses pulses of electromagnetic energy to measure the impedance and reflection characteristics of a transmission medium. By analyzing the time delay and amplitude of the reflected signals, TDR can be used to determine the bandwidth of the medium.
• Bit Error Rate (BER) Test: A BER test is a common method for measuring the quality of digital signals transmitted over a communication medium. By transmitting a test signal over the medium and measuring the number of errors that occur, the BER test can be used to estimate the maximum data rate that can be reliably transmitted over the medium.

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