Agrochemicals and their Effects on the Environment – Class 12 | Chapter – 16 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF
Agrochemicals: Agrochemicals refer to a range of chemicals used in agriculture, including fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides. These chemicals are used to increase crop yields, control pests, and prevent disease in crops.
Impacts of Agrochemicals
The use of agrochemical can also have negative impacts on the environment and human health, including:
- Water pollution: Agrochemicals can leach into water sources and contaminate drinking water, harm aquatic life, and reduce water quality.
- Soil degradation: Overuse of agrochemicals can reduce soil fertility and damage soil structure, leading to decreased crop yields over time.
- Pesticide residue: Pesticides can leave residue on crops, which can be harmful to human health if consumed.
- Non-target species harm: Pesticides can harm beneficial insects, such as pollinators, and non-target species, reducing biodiversity in the ecosystem.
Health effects: Exposure to agrochemicals has been linked to a range of health problems in humans, including cancer, birth defects, and neurological damage.
Types of Agrochemicals
Agrochemical are chemical products used in agriculture to enhance crop production and protect crops from pests, diseases, and weeds. They can be classified into four main categories:
- Fertilizers: Fertilizers are substances that provide essential nutrients to plants, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. They are used to enhance soil fertility and improve crop yields.
- Herbicides: Herbicides are chemicals that control or kill unwanted plants, such as weeds, in crops. They are used to reduce competition for resources and improve crop yields.
- Insecticides: Insecticides are chemicals that control or kill insects that can damage crops, including pests and disease vectors. They are used to protect crops from insect damage and improve crop yields.
Fungicides: Fungicides are chemicals that control or kill fungi that can damage crops, including plant diseases. They are used to protect crops from fungal damage and improve crop yields.
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