## Acceleration – Class 11 | Chapter – 3 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Acceleration: Acceleration is the rate of change of an object’s velocity over time. In other words, it is the measure of how quickly an object’s velocity changes, and in which direction it changes. Acceleration is a vector quantity, which means it has both magnitude (or amount) and direction.

Acceleration can be caused by various factors, such as changes in speed, direction of motion, or both. For example, a car accelerating from a stop sign, a ball thrown into the air, or a planet orbiting around a star are all examples of objects experiencing acceleration.

The SI unit for acceleration is meters per second squared (m/s2). This unit describes how many meters per second an object’s velocity changes each second due to acceleration. Positive acceleration refers to an increase in velocity, while negative acceleration (also known as deceleration or retardation) refers to a decrease in velocity.

## Formula of Acceleration

The formula for acceleration is:

acceleration = (final velocity – initial velocity) / time

where “final velocity” is the object’s velocity at the end of the time period, “initial velocity” is the object’s velocity at the beginning of the time period, and “time” is the duration of the time period.

## Types of Acceleration

There are several types of acceleration, including:

• Uniform acceleration: This is a type of acceleration where an object’s velocity changes by the same amount over equal intervals of time. In other words, the acceleration remains constant over time. An example of uniform acceleration is a freely falling object under the influence of gravity.
• Non-uniform acceleration: This is a type of acceleration where an object’s velocity changes by varying amounts over equal intervals of time. In other words, the acceleration is not constant over time. An example of non-uniform acceleration is a car accelerating from a stop sign, where the acceleration changes as the car gains speed.
• Positive acceleration: This is a type of acceleration where an object’s velocity increases over time. An example of positive acceleration is a car speeding up while driving.
• Negative acceleration (or deceleration): This is a type of acceleration where an object’s velocity decreases over time. An example of negative acceleration is a car slowing down while braking.
• Tangential acceleration: This is a type of acceleration that describes the change in an object’s velocity due to a change in its direction of motion. An example of tangential acceleration is a car turning a corner.
• Centripetal acceleration: This is a type of acceleration that describes the change in an object’s velocity due to a change in its direction of motion in a circular path. An example of centripetal acceleration is a car driving around a circular racetrack.

It’s important to note that an object can experience multiple types of acceleration at the same time, such as a car accelerating while turning a corner, which would involve both tangential and centripetal acceleration.

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