AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor – Class 12 | Chapter – 7 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor: When an AC voltage is applied to a resistor, the resistor will experience an alternating current flow, resulting in the generation of heat. The current flow and the heat generated depend on the magnitude and frequency of the AC voltage and the resistance of the resistor.
AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor
The behavior of the resistor under AC voltage can be analyzed using Ohm’s law, which states that the current through a resistor is proportional to the voltage across it, and inversely proportional to its resistance. Mathematically, Ohm’s law can be expressed as I = V/R, where I is the current, V is the voltage, and R is the resistance of the resistor.
In the case of AC voltage, the voltage and current are both alternating, and their relationship can be described using complex numbers. The complex representation of Ohm’s law can be expressed as I = V/Z, where Z is the impedance of the resistor, which takes into account both the resistance and the reactance of the resistor.
The reactance of the resistor is the opposition to the flow of alternating current, and it is determined by the frequency of the AC voltage and the capacitance or inductance of the circuit. In the case of a purely resistive circuit, the impedance is equal to the resistance, and the current and voltage are in phase.
When an AC voltage is applied to a resistor, the power dissipated in the resistor can be calculated using the formula P = V2/R, where P is the power in watts, V is the voltage in volts, and R is the resistance in ohms. The power dissipated in the resistor generates heat, which can be a useful effect in some applications, such as heating elements in electric stoves and water heaters, or it can be an unwanted effect that needs to be minimized in other applications, such as electronic circuits where excessive heat can damage components or cause malfunctions.
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